Practical life Exercises, are exercises children apply to learn how to do living activities in a purposeful way. The purpose is to help the child gain control in the coordination of his movement, and help the child to gain independence and adapt to his society. It is therefore important to “Teach teaching, not correcting” (Montessori). Practical Life Exercises also help the growth and development of the child’s intellect and concentration and will in turn also help the child develop an orderly way of thinking.
The aim of Sensorial work in a montessori classroom is to help the child develop classification abilities. Montessori believed that sensorial experiences began at birth. Through a childs senses, he studies and learns his environment. Through this study, the child then begins to understand his environment. By working with the sensorial materials, the child now classifies the things around him, which leads to the child making his own experiences in his environment. Through the classification, the child is also offered the first steps in organizing his intelligence, which then leads to his adapting to his environment.
A Montessori environment is designed to aid a child in their Language development. The special material plays an important role in helping the child develop the powers of communication and expression, organization, classification, and the development of thought.
The child will need to be spoken to and listened to often. The child will need a broad exposure to language, with correct articulation, enunciation, and punctuation. The child will need to experience different modes of language and to hear and tell stories. The child's absorbent mind by age six will have reached the 3rd point of consciousness in language where he understands that sounds and words have meaning and that these symbols can be used in writing. He will become fully articulate, he should be able to express himself in writing and be able to read, and have a full comprehension of the thoughts of others
Learning mathematical concepts in a Montessori classroom begins concretely and progresses towards the abstract. They are developed from simple to complex. Process is taught first and facts come later. Order, coordination, concentration, and independence are experienced by the child using these materials. First the child is introduced to sets of one through ten material which prepares the child for counting and teaches the value of quantity. Second the decimal system introduced using the golden bead material. The child will become familiar with the names of the decimal categories; units, tens, hundreds, and thousands. Group three introduces the child to addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
The child is introduced to materials and exercises with which they discover the interrelatedness and interdependence of different aspects of our world. Through cultural works the child works in differnt areas include botany, zoology, history, geography, music, art and physical education. They provide the child the foundation upon which an understanding of our world is attained.